Monaco ( (listen); French pronunciation: [mɔnako]), officially the Principality of Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea. Monaco is also located close to Italy, although it has no direct border. Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2 (0.780 sq mi), making it the second-smallest country in the world after the Vatican. Its population was about 38,400 based on the last census of 2016. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world.
Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi), a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (1,859 and 382 yd). The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level. Monaco’s most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Through land reclamation, Monaco’s land mass has expanded by 20 percent; in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2 (0.762 sq mi). Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, due to its tax laws.
In 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires.Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state. Although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297. The official language is French, but Monégasque, Italian, and English are widely spoken and understood. The state’s sovereignty was officially recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco’s independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France.
However, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the country’s first casino, Monte Carlo, and a railway connection to Paris. Since then, Monaco’s mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality’s status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. The state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is also the host of the annual street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One. The principality has a club football team; AS Monaco, who have become French champions on multiple occasions. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union (EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency (prior to this it used the Monégasque franc). Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004.
It is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF).
== History == Monaco’s name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony. Referred to by the Ligurians as Monoikos, from the Greek “μόνοικος”, “single house”, from “μόνος” (monos) “alone, single” + “οἶκος” (oikos) “house”, which bears the sense of a people either settled in a “single habitation” or of “living apart” from others. According to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods.
As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos. Because the only temple of this area was the “House” of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, which gave it to the Genoese. An ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control.
Though the Republic of Genoa would last until the 19th century, they allowed the Grimaldi family to keep Monaco, and, likewise, both France and Spain left it alone for hundreds of years. France did not annex it until the French Revolution, but after the defeat of Napoleon it was put under the care of the Kingdom of Sardinia. In the 19th century, when Sardinia became a part of Italy, the region came under French influence again but France allowed it to remain independent. Like France, Monaco was overrun by the Axis powers during the Second World War and for a short time was administered by Italy, then the Third Reich, before finally being liberated. Although the occupation lasted for just a short time, it meant the deportation of the Jewish population and execution of several resistance members from Monaco.
Since then Monaco has been independent. It has taken some steps towards integration with the European Union.
=== Arrival of the Grimaldi family === Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as “Il Malizia” (translated from Italian either as “The Malicious One” or “The Cunning One”), and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name. Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, and the struggle over “the Rock” continued for another century.
The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica. The Crown of Aragon eventually became a part of Spain through marriage (see modern day Aragon) and other parts drifted into various pieces of other kingdoms and nations. === 1400–1800 === In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of “the Rock of Monaco”. In 1612 Honoré II began to style himself “Prince” of Monaco.
In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of Louis XIII “Duc et Pair Etranger”. The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes. Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian.
The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne. === 19th century === Between 1793 and 1814 Monaco was occupied by the French (in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French under command of Napoleon). The principality was reestablished in 1814 only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy) was ceded to France. Monaco became a French protectorate once again.
Before this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested.
The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years. These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs. The transfer and Monaco’s sovereignty were recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino. This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favored place for them to live. === 20th century === Until the Monegasque Revolution of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers.
The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldi family and Prince Albert I soon suspended it during the First World War. In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis. In 1943, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration.
Shortly thereafter, following the collapse of Mussolini, the German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and the Nazi deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum, the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l’Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside the French capital before being transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was later killed. Blum’s colleague Raoul Gunsbourg, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the French Resistance, escaped arrest and fled to Switzerland. In August 1944, the Germans executed René Borghini, Joseph-Henri Lajoux and Esther Poggio, who were Resistance leaders. Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949.
On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world’s attention on the tiny principality.A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women’s suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1963, a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French. The 2014 film Grace of Monaco is loosely based on this crisis.In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights. === 21st century === In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco’s military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.On 31 March 2005, Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert.
He died six days later, after a reign of 56 years, with his son succeeding him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco. Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005, in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monégasque throne was a two-step event with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate reception, held on 18 November 2005, at the historic Prince’s Palace in Monaco-Ville.On 27 August 2015, Albert II apologized for Monaco’s role during World War II in facilitating the deportation of a total of 90 Jews and resistance fighters, of whom only nine survived.
“We committed the irreparable in handing over to the neighbouring authorities women, men and a child who had taken refuge with us to escape the persecutions they had suffered in France,” Albert said at a ceremony in which a monument to the victims was unveiled at the Monaco cemetery. “In distress, they came specifically to take shelter with us, thinking they would find neutrality. “In 2015, Monaco unanimously approved a modest land reclamation expansion intended primarily for some desperately needed housing and a small green/park area. Monaco had previously considered an expansion in 2008, but called it off. The plan is for about six hectares of apartment buildings, parks, shops and offices for about 1 billion euros for the land. The development will be adjacent to the Larvotto district and also will include a small marina.
There were four main proposals, and the final mix of use will be finalised as the development progresses. The name for the new district is Anse du Portier.
== Government == Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state.
The executive branch consists of a Minister of State as the head of government, who presides over a five-member Council of Government. Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger as Minister of State.Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council. The 24 members of the National Council are elected for five-year terms; 16 are chosen through a majority electoral system and 8 by proportional representation.
All legislation requires the approval of the National Council, which is currently dominated by the conservative Rally and Issues for Monaco (REM) party which holds 20 seats. Union Monégasque holds three seats while Renaissance holds one seat. The principality’s city affairs are directed by the Communal Council, which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a mayor. Unlike the National Council, councillors are elected for four-year terms, and are strictly non-partisan; however, oppositions inside the council frequently form. === Administrative divisions === Monaco is the second-smallest country by area in the world; only Vatican City is smaller. Monaco is also the world’s second-smallest monarchy, and is the most densely populated country in the world.
The state consists of only one municipality (commune), the Municipality of Monaco. There is no geographical distinction between the State and City of Monaco, although responsibilities of the government (state-level) and of the municipality (city-level) are different. According to the constitution of 1911, the principality was subdivided into three municipalities: Monaco-Ville, the old city on a rocky promontory extending into the Mediterranean, known as the Rock of Monaco, or simply “The Rock”; Monte Carlo, the principal residential and resort area with the Monte Carlo Casino in the east and northeast; La Condamine, the southwestern section including the port area, Port Hercules.The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto “divide and conquer,” and they were accorded the status of Wards or Quartiers thereafter. Fontvieille was added as a fourth ward, a newly constructed area claimed from the sea in the 1970s; Moneghetti became the fifth ward, created from part of La Condamine; Larvotto became the sixth ward, created from part of Monte Carlo; La Rousse/Saint Roman (including Le Ténao) became the seventh ward, also created from part of Monte Carlo.Subsequently, three additional wards were created: Saint Michel, created from part of Monte Carlo; La Colle, created from part of La Condamine; Les Révoires, also created from part of La Condamine.An additional ward was planned by new land reclamation to be settled beginning in 2014 but Prince Albert II announced in his 2009 New Year Speech that he had ended plans due to the current economic climate.
However, Prince Albert II in mid-2010 firmly restarted the program. In 2015, a new development called Anse du Portier was announced.
==== Traditional quarters and modern geographic areas ==== The four traditional Quartiers of Monaco are Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Fontvieille. However, the suburb of Moneghetti, the high-level part of La Condamine, is generally seen today as an effective fifth Quartier of the Monaco, having a very distinct atmosphere and topography when compared with low-level La Condamine. ==== Wards ==== Currently Monaco is subdivided into ten wards, with their official numbers; either Fontvieille II or Le Portier would become the effective eleventh ward, if built: Note: for statistical purposes, the Wards of Monaco are further subdivided into 178 city blocks (îlots), which are comparable to the census blocks in the United States. Other possible expansions are Le Portier, a project relaunched in 2012 Another possibility was Fontvieille II Development to commence in 2013 === Security === The wider defence of the nation is provided by France.
Monaco has no navy or air force, but on both a per-capita and per-area basis, Monaco has one of the largest police forces (515 police officers for about 36,000 people) and police presences in the world. Its police includes a special unit which operates patrol and surveillance boats.There is also a small military force. This consists of a bodyguard unit for the Prince and the palace in Monaco-Ville called the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Prince’s Company of Carabiniers), which is equipped with weapons such as M16A2 rifles and 9 mm pistols (Glock 17), and which together with the militarized, armed fire and civil defence Corps (Sapeurs-Pompiers) forms Monaco’s total public forces.
The Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince was created by Prince Honoré IV in 1817 for the protection of the principality and the Princely family. The company numbers exactly 116 officers and men; while the NCOs and soldiers are local, the officers have generally served in the French Army. In addition to their guard duties as described, the Carabiniers patrol the principality’s beaches and coastal waters.
== Geography == Monaco is a sovereign city state, with five quartiers and ten wards, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. It is bordered by France’s Alpes-Maritimes département on three sides, with one side bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Its center is about 16 km (9.9 mi) from Italy and only 13 km (8.1 mi) northeast of Nice, France. It has an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi), or 202 hectares (500 acres), and a population of 38,400, making Monaco the second-smallest and the most densely populated country in the world. The country has a land border of only 5.47 km (3.40 mi), a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), a maritime claim that extends 22.2 kilometres (13.8 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (5,577 and 1,145 ft).The highest point in the country is at the access to the Patio Palace residential building on the Chemin des Révoires (ward Les Révoires) from the D6007 (Moyenne Corniche street) at 164.4 metres (539 feet) above sea level. The lowest point in the country is the Mediterranean Sea.Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around 0.19 km (190 metres; 0.12 miles; 620 feet) in length, and Fontvieille is the largest lake, approximately 0.5 ha (5,000.00 m2; 1.24 acres; 53,819.55 sq ft) in area.
Monaco’s most populated quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populated ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins.After a recent expansion of Port Hercules, Monaco’s total area grew to 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi) or 202 hectares (500 acres); consequently, new plans have been approved to extend the district of Fontvieille by 0.08 km2 (0.031 sq mi) or 8 hectares (20 acres), with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea. Current land reclamation projects include extending the district of Fontvieille. There are two ports in Monaco, Port Hercules and Port Fontvieille. Monaco’s only natural resource is fishing; with almost the entire country being an urban area, Monaco lacks any sort of commercial agriculture industry. There is a neighboring French port called Cap d’Ail that is near Monaco.
=== Architecture === Monaco exhibits a wide range of architecture, but the principality’s signature style, particularly in Monte Carlo, is that of the Belle Epoque. It finds its most florid expression in the 1878–9 Casino and the Salle Garnier created by Charles Garnier and Jules Dutrou. Decorative elements including turrets, balconies, pinnacles, multi-coloured ceramics and caryatids and borrowed and blended to create a picturesque fantasy of pleasure and luxury, and an alluring expression of how Monaco sought, and still seeks, to portray itself. This capriccio of French, Italian and Spanish elements was incorporated into hacienda villas and apartments. Following major development in the 1970s, Prince Rainier III banned high-rise development in the principality.
However, his successor, Prince Albert II, overturned this Sovereign Order. In recent years the accelerating demolition of Monaco’s architectural heritage, including its single-family villas, has created dismay. The principality currently has no heritage protection legislation.
=== Climate === Monaco has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate. As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures greater than 30 °C or 86 °F are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate because of constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer.
Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20 °C (68 °F) in this season. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years. On February 27, 2018, both Monaco and Monte Carlo experienced snowfall. == Economy == Monaco has the world’s second-highest GDP nominal per capita at US$153,177, GDP PPP per capita at $132,571 and GNI per capita at $183,150. It also has an unemployment rate of 2%, with over 48,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day.
According to the CIA World Factbook, Monaco has the world’s lowest poverty rate and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world. For the fourth year in a row, Monaco in 2012 had the world’s most expensive real estate market, at $58,300 per square metre.One of Monaco’s main sources of income is tourism. Each year many foreigners are attracted to its casino and pleasant climate. It has also become a major banking center, holding over €100 billion worth of funds. Banks in Monaco specialize in providing private banking, asset and wealth management services.
The principality has successfully sought to diversify its economic base into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries, such as cosmetics and biothermics.The state retains monopolies in numerous sectors, including tobacco and the postal service. The telephone network (Monaco Telecom) used to be fully owned by the state; it now owns only 45%, while the remaining 55% is owned by both Cable & Wireless Communications (49%) and Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). It is still, however, a monopoly. Living standards are high, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan areas.Monaco is not a member of the European Union.
However, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France and, as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side. === Gambling industry === The plan for casino gambling was drafted during the reign of Florestan I in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe’s petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as the Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house.
All this changed in the dissolute Second French Empire under Napoleon III. The House of Grimaldi was in dire need of money. The towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which had been the main sources of income for the Grimaldi family for centuries, were now accustomed to a much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention and clamored for financial and political concession, even for separation.
The Grimaldi family hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco’s first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III assumed the throne in 1856. The grantee of the princely concession (licence) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino (in fact the largest in Europe) in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as “Les Spelegures (Den of Thieves)” to “Monte Carlo (Mount Charles).” They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed “Monte Carlo” and cleared out the area’s less-than-savory elements to make the neighborhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism. The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858 and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created. Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half-century of economic slump and the principality’s success attracted other businesses.
In the years following the casino’s opening, Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels were built and the number of jewelers operating in Monaco increased by nearly five-fold. In an apparent effort to not overtax citizens, it was decreed that the Monégasque citizens were prohibited from entering the casino unless they were employees. By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford to end tax collection from the Monegasques—a master stroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe in a policy that still exists today. Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which owns Le Grand Casino, still operates in the original building that the Blancs constructed and has since been joined by several other casinos, including the Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino and the Sun Casino.
The most recent addition in Monte Carlo is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea and, among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with “ticket-in, ticket-out” (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology. === Taxes === Monaco has high social-insurance taxes, payable by both employers and employees. The employers’ contributions are between 28% and 40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary, including benefits, and employees pay a further 10% to 14% (averaging 13%). Monaco has never levied income tax on individuals, and foreigners are thus able to use it as a “tax haven” from their own country’s taxes, because as an independent country, Monaco is not obligated to pay taxes to other countries. The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy “tax refugee” residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are lesser-known business people.
However, due to a bilateral treaty with France, French citizens are still required to pay applicable income and wealth taxes to the French state even if they are resident in Monaco, and the principality also actively discourages the registration of foreign corporations, charging a 33 per cent corporation tax on profits unless it can be shown that at least three-quarters of the turnover has been generated within its borders. Unlike classic tax havens, it does not offer offshore financial services.In 1998 the Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), issued a first report on the consequences of the financial systems of known tax havens. Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when the OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in a report, as well as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia, and the Marshall Islands, underlining its lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability. However, Monaco went on to overcome the objections of the OECD and was thus removed from its “grey list” of unco-operative jurisdictions. In 2009 it went a step farther and secured a place on its “white list”, after signing twelve information exchange treaties with other jurisdictions.In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: “The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters.
In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN.” Also in 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon stated that Monaco had relaxed policies with respect to money laundering, including within its casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated. In its Progress Report of 2005, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven, but in its FATF report of the same year it took a positive view of Monaco’s measures against money-laundering.The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens.
Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco was the only territory that refused to perform the second round, between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories had planned implementing the third and final round, planned between 2005 and 2007. === Numismatics === Of interest to numismatists, in Monaco the euro was introduced in 2002, having been preceded by the Monégasque franc. In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. Like Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands, and Spain, Monaco decided to put the minting date on its coins. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like the other countries of the Eurozone that decided to put the year of first circulation (2002) on their coins.
Three different designs were selected for the Monégasque coins. However, in 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.Monaco also mints collectors’ coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100. These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins.
Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised by all eurozone countries. == Population == === Demographics === Monaco’s total population was 38,400 in 2015. Monaco’s population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%).Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalized, are called Monégasque.
Monaco has the world’s highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years.
=== Language === The official language of Monaco is French, while Italian is spoken by the principality’s sizeable community from Italy. Thus, French and Italian supplants Monegasque, the vernacular language of the Monegasques, which is not recognized as an official language; English is used by American, British, Anglo-Canadian, and Irish residents. The Grimaldi, princes of Monaco, have Ligurian origin, thus, the traditional national language is Monégasque, a variety of Ligurian, now spoken by only a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque.
=== Religion === ==== Catholic Church ==== The official religion is the Catholic Church, with freedom of other religions guaranteed by the constitution. There are five Catholic parish churches in Monaco and one cathedral, which is the seat of the archbishop of Monaco. The diocese, which has existed since the mid-19th century, was raised to a non-metropolitan archbishopric in 1981 as the Archdiocese of Monaco and remains exempt (i.e. immediately subject to the Holy See). The patron saint is Saint Devota.
Christians comprise a total of 83.2% of Monaco’s population.
==== Protestantism ==== According to Monaco 2012 International Religious Freedom Report, Protestants are the second-largest group after Roman Catholics. There are various Evangelical Protestant communities that gather periodically. The report states that there are two Protestant churches, including the local Anglican church and a Reformed church.
==== Anglicanism ==== There is one Anglican church (St. Paul’s Church), located in the Avenue de Grande Bretagne in Monte Carlo. In 2007 this had a formal membership of 135 Anglicans resident in the principality, but was also serving a considerably larger number of Anglicans temporarily in the country, mostly as tourists.
The church site also accommodates an English-language library of over 3,000 books. The church is part of the Anglican Diocese in Europe.
==== Greek Orthodoxy ==== Monaco’s 2012 International Religious Freedom Report states that there is one Greek Orthodox Church in Monaco.
==== Judaism ==== The Association Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (founded in 1948) is a converted house containing a synagogue, a community Hebrew school, and a kosher food shop, located in Monte Carlo. The community mainly consists of retirees from Britain (40%) and North Africa. Two-thirds of the Jewish population is Sephardic, mainly from North Africa, while the other third is Ashkenazi.
==== Islam ==== The Muslim population of Monaco consists of about 280 people, most of whom are exclusively residents, not citizens. The majority of the Muslim population of Monaco are Arabs, though there are smaller Turkish minorities as well. Monaco does not have any official mosques. There is a Muslim mosque in nearby Beausoleil, France, within easy walking distance of Monaco.