== Sports == === Formula One === Since 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks.
The circuit is incredibly narrow and tight and its tunnel, tight corners and many elevation changes make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track. Driver Nelson Piquet compared driving the circuit to “riding a bicycle around your living room”. Despite the challenging nature of the course it has only had one fatality, Lorenzo Bandini, who crashed, burned and died three days later from his injuries in 1967. Two other drivers had lucky escapes after they crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix and Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 race.
=== Monte Carlo Rally === Since 1911 part of the Monte Carlo Rally has been held in the principality, originally held at the behest of Prince Albert I. Like the Grand Prix, the rally is organized by Automobile Club de Monaco.
It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship (WRC). From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge. The rally returned to the WRC calendar in 2012 and has been held annually since. Due to Monaco’s limited size, all but the ending of the rally is held on French territory. === Football === Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality: the men’s football club, AS Monaco FC, and the women’s football club, OS Monaco.
AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II and competes in Ligue 1 the first division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in the French league, having won Ligue 1 eight times (most recently in 2016–17) and competed at the top level for all but six seasons since 1953. The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, with a team that included Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Jérôme Rothen, Akis Zikos and Ludovic Giuly, but lost 3–0 to Portuguese team FC Porto.
Many international stars have played for the club, such as French World Cup-winners Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez, David Trezeguet, and Kylian Mbappe. The Stade Louis II also played host to the annual UEFA Super Cup (1998–2012) between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The women’s team, OS Monaco, competes in the women’s French football league system. The club currently plays in the local regional league, deep down in the league system.
It once played in the Division 1 Féminine, in the 1994–95 season, but was quickly relegated. Current France women’s national football team goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi had a short stint at the club before going to the INF Clairefontaine academy. The Monaco national football team represents the nation in association football and is controlled by the Monégasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. However, Monaco is one of only three sovereign states in Europe (along with the United Kingdom and Vatican City) that is not a member of UEFA and so does not take part in any UEFA European Football Championship or FIFA World Cup competitions. The team plays its home matches in the Stade Louis II.
=== Rugby === Monaco’s national rugby team, as of October 2013, is 91st in the International Rugby Board rankings. === Other sports === The Monte-Carlo Masters is held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis’s ATP Masters Series. The tournament has been held since 1897.
Golf’s Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal. The 2009 Tour de France, the world’s premier cycle race, started from Monaco with a 15-kilometre (9 mi) closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day, and the 182-kilometre (113 mi) second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.Monaco also stage part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping).
Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco will be hosting the world’s most celebrated riders, including Monaco’s own Charlotte Casiraghi, in a setting facing out over the world’s most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port Hercules and Prince’s palace. In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25–27 June. The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy, before the finish at the Stade Louis II. The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1,000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a 1.9-kilometre (1.2-mile) swim, 90-kilometre (56-mile) bike ride and 21.1-kilometre (13.1-mile) run.
Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations, the world governing body of athletics, is located in Monaco. An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II.A municipal sports complex, the Rainier III Nautical Stadium in the Port Hercules district consists of a heated saltwater Olympic-size swimming pool, diving boards and a slide. The pool is converted into an ice rink from December to March.From 10–12 July 2014 Monaco inaugurated the Solar1 Monte Carlo Cup, a series of ocean races exclusively for solar-powered boats., == Culture == === Music === Monaco has an opera house, a symphony orchestra and a classical ballet company. === Visual arts === Monaco has a national museum of contemporary visual art at the New National Museum of Monaco. The country also has numerous works of public art, statues, museums, and memorials (see list of public art in Monaco). === Museums in Monaco === Monaco Top Cars Collection Napoleon Museum (Monaco) Oceanographic Museum === Events, festivals and shows === The Principality of Monaco hosts major international events such as : International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo Mondial du Théâtre Monte-Carlo Television Festival == Education == === Primary and secondary schools === Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: seven nursery and primary schools; one secondary school, Collège Charles III; one lycée that provides general and technological training, Lycée Albert 1er; and one lycée that provides vocational and hotel training, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo.
There are also two grant-aided denominational private schools, Institution François d’Assise Nicolas Barré and Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, and one international school, the International School of Monaco, founded in 1994. === Colleges and universities === There is one university located in Monaco, namely the International University of Monaco (IUM), an English-language school specializing in business education and operated by the Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales (INSEEC) group of schools. == Flag == The flag of Monaco is one of the world’s oldest national flag designs.
The flag of Monaco, which Monaco adopted in April 4, 1881, is almost identical to the flag of Indonesia (adopted by Indonesia in August 17, 1945) except for the ratio of height to width. == Transport == The Monaco-Monte Carlo station is served by the SNCF, the French national rail system. The Monaco Heliport provides helicopter service to the closest airport, Côte d’Azur Airport in Nice, France. The Monaco bus company (CAM) covers all the tourist attractions, museums, Exotic garden, business centres, and the Casino or the Louis II Stadium.
== Relations with other countries == Monaco is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with. The Crown of Aragon and Republic of Genoa became a part of other countries, as did the Kingdom of Sardinia. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, and then from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne (1641). Monaco made a special agreement with France in 1963 in which French customs laws apply in Monaco and its territorial waters. Monaco uses the euro but is not a member of the European Union.
Monaco shares a 6-kilometre (3.7-mile) border with France but also has about 2-kilometre (1.2-mile) of coastline with the Mediterranean sea. Two important agreements that support Monaco’s independence from France include the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861 and the French Treaty of 1918 (see also Kingdom of Sardinia). The United States CIA Factbook records 1419 as the year of Monaco’s independence. France-Monaco relations Monaco–United States relations Monaco–Russia relationsThere are two embassies in Monaco: those of France and Italy. There are about another 30 or so consulates. By the 21st century Monaco maintained embassies in Belgium (Brussels), France (Paris), Germany (Berlin), the Vatican, Italy (Rome), Spain (Madrid), Switzerland (Bern), United Kingdom (London) and the United States (Washington).In the year 2000 nearly two-thirds of the residents of Monaco were foreigners In 2015 the immigrant population was estimated at 60% However, it is reported to be difficult to gain citizenship in Monaco, or at least in relative number there is not many people who do so.
In 2015 an immigration rate of about 4 people per 1,000 was noted, which works out to something like 100–150 people a year. The population of Monaco went from 35,000 in 2008 to 36,000 in 2013, and of that about 20 percent were native Monegasque (see also Nationality law of Monaco). A recurring issue Monaco encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco to avoid paying taxes in their own country. Monaco actually collects a number of taxes including a 20% VAT and 33% on companies unless they make over 75% of their income inside Monaco.
Monaco does not allow dual citizenship, but does have multiple paths to citizenship including by declaration and naturalization. In many cases the key issue for obtaining citizenship, rather than attaining residency in Monaco, is the person’s ties to their departure country. For example, French citizens must still pay taxes to France even if they live full-time in Monaco unless they resided in the country before 1962 for at least 5 years.
In the early 1960s there was some tension between France and Monaco over taxation.There are no border formalities entering or leaving to France. For visitors a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco’s tourist office. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.
== See also == Outline of Monaco List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density Foreign relations of Monaco List of rulers of Monaco Japanese Garden, Monaco Telecommunications in Monaco Microstates and the European Union List of diplomatic missions in Monaco List of diplomatic missions of Monaco Monaco–European Union relations.